Il Fero da Prova, Symbol of Venice

Carnaval vénitien’ by Jules Burgmein, published by G. Ricordi & Cie (Milan, 1897). Cover chromolithographed by Giovanni Maria Mataloni.

Olivier Castel is one of our long-time readers. He teaches medicine at the university of Poitiers (France) and has been for many years a passionate collector of books and sheet music about Venice. It pleases us very much to publish his interesting findings on the iconography of gondolas. We hope that our translation does justice to Dr Castel’s fine observations. Happy reading!

The image of Venice is closely associated with its gondolas, slowly and gracefully gliding through the shallow, narrow canals of the lagoon. With their elegant, easily recognisable profile and black colour they have become a key symbol of the city. It is therefore not surprising that they have been a source of inspiration for many artists to illustrate sheet music depicting Venice. The city’s captivating charm has spawned a remarkable number of at least 350 scores with a French title or published in Paris a third of them illustrated with a gondola.

Fero da prova‘ Venice ca. 1700. Source: The Met, New York

Very early in its history, the bow of the gondola was adorned with a characteristic fero da prova. This iron prow head forms a comb with six teeth rising forward. It was originally used to counterbalance the weight of the gondolier. During the XVIIth century, each element acquired a precise meaning: the curvature represents the Grand Canal, the 6 parallel horizontal teeth at the front represent the 6 sestieri or districts of Venice and the only tooth opposite the upper tooth, represents the island of Giudecca. Finally, the empty space formed by the converging of the upper curved figure (called the Doge’s hat) towards the first tooth represents the Rialto Bridge.

French sheet music seldom gives an accurate representation of the gondola’s bow and iron. The Italians knew better of course, as proven by the opening image of ‘Carnaval vénitien‘ published by Ricordi, and richly illustrated by the Italian artist Giovanni Maria Mataloni (1889-1944). Mataloni is best known as a poster artist, and one of the precursors of the Stile Liberty, the Italian variant of Art Nouveau.

Le doux air de Veniseby Auguste Panseron, published by J. Meissonnier (Paris, 1829) and illustrated by Marie-Alexandre Alophe.

Marie-Alexandre Alophe (1812-1883), aka Adolphe Menut, is a painter and a lithographer. His work is characterised by a gentle sensitivity. Although also a photographer, he does not care about an accurate depiction, only the general appearance matters for him in order to evoke Venice. Let’s look at his 1829 drawing for Le Doux Air de Venise, a typical illustration for early 19th century scores. The prow iron is absent, its shape is ‘integrated’ in the wood of the gondola, the proportions are wrong, the front teeth are too thick and there are only three of them with no rear one. The result is a heavy, coarse bow.

La plainte du Gondolier’ by Gaston Salvayre, published by Choudens Père Fils (Paris, 1878) and illustrated by Gustave Fraipont.

The same applies to the cover illustration of ‘La plainte du Gondolier‘ by Gustave Fraipont half a century later. Fraipont (1843-1923), a French illustrator and poster artist of Belgian origin, here at the beginning of his career, gives us an airy stereotypical vision of Venice and its Grand Canal but with a rather unrefined gondola.

La célèbre Furlana vénitienne’ by Saratosga, published by Victoria (Paris, 1914) and illustrated by Paul Dubois.

During the 1914 Furlana dance craze Paul Dubois (1886-1949) illustrated two covers of La Célèbre Furlana Venitienne. The illustrator, identified by the monogram PD, creates one of the most curious representations of the Venetian gondola, with an unrealistic prow-head where the artist didn’t respect the Grand-Canal curvature, nor the number of teeth both at the front and at the rear. He even placed the gondolier opposite his usual place. Besides, knowing that the gondola has an asymmetrical shape, it would be impossible to move it through the water.

Left: ‘Barcarolle’ by Gaston Aubert, published by himself (Paris, 1908). Right: ‘La Giocosa Furlana’ by Lucien Durand, published by C. Dupuis (Paris, 1914). Both covers illustrated by Léon Pousthomis.

Leon Pousthomis (1881-1916) created many sheet music covers during his short life (he died in the Battle of Verdun at the age of 35). The 12 illustrated scores depicting Venice are evidence of his prolificacy. What characterises his vision of Venice perhaps the most is the distortion of the bow of the gondolas which he stretches to the extreme.

Clockwise; ‘Venise la jolie’ byJean Daris , ‘A kiss in the dark’ by Victor Herbert, ‘Lido Lady’ by Rodgers & Hart, ‘Venise adieu!’ by Ackermans & Geuskens and ‘Dans ma gondole’ by Harry Warren. Published by Salabert (Paris, 1922- 1928) and illustrated by de Valerio. The cover of Lido Lady is attributed to de Valerio.

Roger de Valério (1886-1951) created his first cover for the publisher Salabert in 1917, for whom he allegedly produced more than 2000. In 1926 Emile Chéronnet wrote: “I had this collection in my hands. This is a set of such a baffling variety that you can hardly believe it is not made by an entire studio. However Valério works alone indeed, and for these musical illustrations he has an imagination that is nearly miraculous” (L’Art Vivant, October 1926). It is therefore not surprising to find no less than 11 of his covers depicting Venice, including 5 with a gondola.

‘Sérénade à Marysa’ by Pandera, published by Editions Ricordi (Paris, 1935). ‘Lido cha cha’ by Roger Lécussant, published by Publications Musicales Jean Merlin (Paris, 1961). Both illustrated by Würth.

But it is Würth who illustrated the most scores with Venice on the cover: 16 between 1920 and 1961. He gave the gondolas a simple shape with an elongated, stylised bow and a marked Rialto Bridge. He purified his design over the years as we can see on these two sheet music covers made 25 years apart. Würth was an ubiquitous illustrator in French music publishing in the mid-twentieth century. He has worked for a large number of publishing houses (the 16 recorded scores were published by 15 different publishing houses). Despite a plethora of work, nothing is known about his life, which is rather surprising but not unusual in the world of music publishing.

Left: ‘Venise’ by Hubert Giraud, 1957. Right: ‘Chanson de Venise’ by Nicole Louvier, 1961. Both published by Les Nouvelles Editions Méridian (Paris) and illustrated by Raymond Erny.

To conclude this post on the ornamental prow iron we emphasise its importance as an icon for Venice, a simplified version of it being enough to evoke the city. For the 1957 song ‘Venise‘ Raymond Erny replaced a bar of the V by the highly stylised prow of a gondola. He also uses a Palina, another symbol of the city. For the 1961 song Chanson de Venise, he simplifies the prow even more by merely adding three horizontal crossbars to the front of the V. Erny, a contemporary of Würth, also remains to this day almost unknown, despite an equally significant production. Fortunately, we still have their illustrations as reminders of their work.

Olivier Castel

F. Mendelssohn: Venetianisches Gondellied Op. 30 n.6 – played by Roberto Giordano

Lalla Rookh

Sheet music cover 'Lalla Rookh' by George L'Estrange, illustrated by W. George
Lalla Rookh‘ by George L’Estrange, published by Cramer & C° Ltd (London, 1913) and illustrated by W. George.

In 1817 the Irish writer Thomas Moore published his bestselling epic book: Lalla Rookh. Hundred years later George L’Estrange —a now totally forgotten composer wrote a sentimental and unremarkable waltz of the same name. This L’Estrange was not the first who got inspired by Moore’s Oriental romance. From the start Lalla Rookh roused the romantic imaginations of several artists.

Illustration by John Tenniel, from the book ‘Lalla Rookh, An Oriental Romance’ by Thomas Moore, published by Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green (London, 1862).

Moore’s tale narrates how the beautiful Lalla Rookh, daughter of the Mughal Emperor, travels from Delhi to meet —for the first time— her fiancé, the king of Bukhara (in what is now Uzbekistan). She is accompanied by Fadladeen, a self-righteous, obnoxious chamberlain and also by the handsome minstrel Feramorz, who distracts her from the long journey by telling her charming stories. Predictably, the princess falls in love with the young poet and dreads the moment she will have to face her royal betrothed. In the end the amiable storyteller appears to be none other than the king who had wanted to know if Lalla Rookh would love him for his own merit rather than for his wealth. All’s well that ends well.

Sheet music cover for 'Maid of Athens'
Maid of Athens‘ by Edward J. Loder & Lord Byron, published by Jefferys & C° (London, s.d.)

It was Lord Byron who had advised his very good friend and literary rival Thomas Moore to try Orientalism. He in turn was tipped off by Madame de Staël, a French-Swiss writer and influencer avant la lettre. Byron wrote to Moore in 1813: “Stick to the East. The oracle, Staël, told me it was the only poetic policy. The North, South, and West have all been exhausted…”.

Moore had never travelled to the East and thus spent six years of extensive research to come up with his armchair traveller’s view of the Orient. But it was time well spent —and sound advice from Byron— that earned Moore a princely sum of money.
Byron also had orientalist ambitions and had by then already travelled to the east. In 1810, while in Greece, Byron wrote the poem Maid of Athens, which has been set to music by numerous composers. On the cover above we recognise Byron and Theresa Makri, the daughter of his landlord in Athens. Theresa was twelve years old when Byron (he was twenty-two at the time) fell head over heels in love with her. Reportedly he offered £500 for her hand in marriage. The offer was rejected. Byron wrote the girl a poem, and set to his new destination, Constantinople.

Lalla-Roukh‘ by Félicien David, arranged by H. Marx, published by F. Girod (Paris, s.d.) and illustrated by Célestin Nanteuil.

Félicien David, a French pioneer of musical Orientalism, was another composer excited by Lalla Rookh‘s fairy-tale plot. In his opéra comique Lalla Roukh the heroin kept her phonetic name, but the poet/king Feramorz became Noureddin. Lalla-Roukh is also accompanied by her servant Mirza and by Baskir (Fadladeen in Moore’s version), the pompous, critical and conniving chamberlain.

Emma Calvé, Eustase Thomas-Salignac and Hippolyte Belhomme in the opéra comique ‘Lalla-Roukh’. Photographs by Nadar. source: gallica.bnf.fr / BnF

Contrary to Thomas Moore, Félicien David did travel to the Orient. He even had a specially reinforced piano built to withstand the heat and long journeys. With this small piano that could almost be slung over the shoulder, he travelled to the Middle-East, Algeria and Egypt. He stayed for two years in Cairo where he gave music lessons and explored the desert. These years were decisive for the Orientalist character of his musical work.

Felicien David by A. Lemot. source: gallica.bnf.fr / BnF

David returned to France where his Lalla Roukh was first performed to huge acclaim in 1862 and would remain popular till the end of the century. It was the catalyst for an explosion of operas set in the ‘Exotic East’.

David’s Lalla Roukh was almost forgotten, but was revived in 2014 by Opera Lafayette in Washington DC. Enjoy an excerpt of their production with a classical Indian dance.

The story of Lalla Rookh also found its way in popular culture. Kate Vaughan, allegedly the first woman to flash her petticoats, also inventor of the skirt dance, had a vaudeville act as Lalla Rookh in the London Novelty Theatre during the 1880s.

Kate Vaughan als Lalla Rookh, Novelty Theatre London

In the United States showman Adam Forepaugh presented in 1880 a street pageant Lalla Rookh’s departure from Delhi. Atop of an elephant sat the most beautiful woman in the world, for which title she had been awarded ten thousand dollars. Curiously, it was not the beauty queen who was named Lalla Rookh but the elephant.

Mysterious Phenomena In Illustrated Sheet Music – Part 4

Detective-rag‘ by Erm. Oisorak. Published by Rob Rosewelt (New York, s.d.). Illustration signed with monogram SM.

We need the assistance of the finest detectives to investigate our next round of mysteries. How did they do it? What were their motives? Did illustrators and publishers concoct their misdeeds together? Were some of the printers accomplices? How did they get away with it?
We will not rest until the last puzzling enigma has been explained.

The Gaucho Lookalike

Y… Como le va?‘ Tango Argentino by Juan Valverde. Left: published by Edition Estic – Stadium des Arts (Paris, 1909). Right: published by Casa Dotésio (Madrid, 1912). Unknown illustrator.

Less is More? Ehm… More or Less

sheet music cover for 'Die kleine Fischerin' by Ludolf Waldmann
Die kleine Fischerin‘ by Ludolf Waldmann. LEFT: published by L. Waldmann (Berlin, s.d.) – source Indiana University. RIGHT: published by J. Kasteel (Den Haag, s.d.). Unknown illustrator.

The Theft of the Trumpet and Other Things

sheet music cover for Madame Gaspard illustrated by Caban
LEFT: ‘Madame Gaspard‘ by Bachmann. RIGHT: ‘Je n’ai qu’un Chat !‘ by Emile Spencer and Jorge Fabri. Both published by Georges Ondet (Paris, s.d.) and illustrated by Ch. Caban.

The Georgette Impersonation

Illustrated sheet music. Cover by Wohlman and Robert Laroche.
Georgette‘ by Ray Henderson & Lew Brown. LEFT: published by Shapiro, Bernstein & Co (New York, 1922), illustrated by Wohlman. RIGHT: published by Smyth (Paris, 1922) and illustrated by Robert Laroche.

The Metamorphosic Seduction

Sheet music cover for 'Good Night'
Good Night‘ by Leo Wood, Irving Bibo and Con Conrad. LEFT: published by Francis, Day & Hunter (London, 1923). RIGHT: published by Leo Feist (New York, 1923). Unknown illustrators.

We close this post with another Good Night puzzle, the one sung by Ringo Starr on The Beatles’ white album. Is it a plain sentimental lullaby or rather a campy spoof?

Now it’s time to say good night
Good night sleep tight
Now the sun turns out his light
Good night sleep tight
Dream sweet dreams for me
Dream sweet dreams for you.

Close your eyes and I’ll close mine
Good night sleep tight
Now the moon begins to shine
Good night sleep tight
Dream sweet dreams for me
Dream sweet dreams for you.

Close your eyes and I’ll close mine
Good night sleep tight
Now the sun turns out his light
Good night sleep tight
Dream sweet dreams for me
Dream sweet dreams for you.

Good night good night everybody
Everybody everywhere
Good night.

'Ceci et ça' about Illustrated Sheet Music