Category Archives: Sports

To March or not to March: La Marche de l’Armée

Sheet music cover for Marche des Chauffeurs
Marche des Chauffeurs‘ composed and published by Auguste Bosc (Paris, s.d.). Cover illustration by Léonce Burret.

Isn’t it ironic? Composing a march to celebrate another form of locomotion, really! The lady reading a book in her automobile has no intention at all to set foot on the ground, let alone to walk. Her chauffeur seems to question her attitude. Thank you Léonce Burret for this quizzical image.

A marche that wasn’t composed to accompany a brisk walk or hike. We found this same kind of contradiction for ‘marches‘ that praise cycling,…

Sheet music cover illustrating the Marche des Cyclistes
Marche des Cyclistes‘ by Louis Desvaux, published by Emile Gallet (Paris, s.d.) and illustrated by Hyacinthe Royet.

salute ballooning,…

Sheet music cover for 'Marche des Aëronautes'
Marche des Aëronautes‘ by Charles Grelinger. Published by Portius (Leipzig, 1907), unknown illustrator.

or cheer the enjoyment of gliding on ice…

Illustration for 'Skating March', a composition by Cécile Reubère, published by Fatout & Girard in Paris
Skating March‘ by Cécile Reubère, published by Fatout & Girard (Paris, s.d.). Unknown illustrator.

or over snow.

illustration by Georges Desains for the sheet music cover 'Skiers Marche' by Adolphe Gauwin
Skiers Marche‘ by Adolphe Gauwin. Published by L. Paroche (Paris, 1906) and illustrated by Georges Desains.

We recognise a good old-fashioned march when we hear or see one. Something that encourages a fast pace in a military spirit, and that goes a long way, on foot of course!  Here it is, the Marche du Matin strongly illustrated by Lucien Faure-Dujarric. 

Sheet miusic cover for 'Marche du Matin' by Léon Fontbonne. Illustration by Lucien Faure-Dujarric
Marche du Matin‘ by Léon Fontbonne. Published by Société Musicale G. Astruc & Cie (Paris, 1904) and illustrated by Lucien Faure.

I mistakenly assumed that the Marche du Matin was composed to hearten the soldiers during their daily early morning exercise. No, the title of the march refers to Le Matin, one of the four big French newspapers before WWI.

Front page of Le Matin newspaper in 1904
Front page of ‘Le Matin’ on the next day of the contest. (source: gallica.bnf)

On the 29th of May in 1904 Le Matin organised a promotional stunt: with the encouragement of the Minister of War and the cooperation of the Army top, each French regiment selected 10 of its men to participate in the big Marche de l’Armée. The walking contest started at the Place de la Concorde at 7 am, with the playing of a military march. Then the 2000 men in battle dress and heavy boots assembled in two long columns and charged up the Champs-Elysées to commence the 45 km (!) long itinerary that would bring them through Paris as far as St-Germain-en-Laye and back. Large crowds, cheers and flags accompanied the men.

Postcard (1904) showing the Marche de l'Armée
Postcard illustrating the festive ambiance at one of the checkpoints on the Marche de l’Armée. (source: eBay)

France’s Bibliothèque nationale is a real treasure trove.  After some digging we were lucky to find interesting pictures of this arduous march by the photographic agency Rol.

Photo of the Marche de l'Armée
Lutte pour la première place, passage sur le pont de Saint-Cloud.‘ [Battle for the first place on the Saint-Cloud bridge.] – Photo Agence Rol (source: gallica.bnf)

Photographic picture of La Marche de l'Armée (1904)
Caporal Piscau dans la montée du Coeur Volant, à Marly.‘ [Corporal Piscau on the Coeur Volant slope at Marly.] – Photo Agence Rol (source: gallica.bnf)

Photo of La Marche de l'Armée (1904)
St-Germain: arrêt des soldats à la buvette, place du Marché Neuf.‘ [In St-Germain: the soldiers at the refreshment bar on the Marché Neuf square.] – Photo Agence Rol (source: gallica.bnf)

Photo of La Marche de l'Armée
Les soldats place du Marché Neuf, à Saint-Germain-en-Laye.‘ [The soldiers at the Marché Neuf square in Saint-Germain-en-Laye.] – Photo Agence Rol (source: gallica.bnf)

Marche de l'Armée, photo Agence ROL
Le premier: soldat Girard, vainqueur de la Marche de l’Armée, arrivée à la Galerie des Machines.‘ [The winner: soldier Girard, champion of the Marche de l’Armée, arrives at the Galerie des Machines.] – Photo Agence Rol (source: gallica.bnf)

Marche de l'Armée, photo by Agence Rol
Stade Buffalo: Rodolphe Muller serrant la main du soldat Girard, vainqueur de la Marche de l’Armée.‘ [Stade Buffalo: Rodolphe Muller shakes hand with soldier Girard (left), the winner of the Marche de l’Armée.] – Photo Agence Rol (source: gallica.bnf)

I won’t recount the whole day, nor the numerous incidents and accidents. After more than 5 hours the first contestant arrived at the finish. That day the weather was abnormally hot, and the men suffered. Many abandoned the march. Some soldiers were taken to hospital, at least one died. What should have been a festive day became a painful spectacle. The next day L’Humanité, the communist newspaper would report: “The sight of Gerard, the winner, had made the crowd cry out in pity. The unhappy boy could not even, at the end, lift his painful feet swollen with fatigue. The sight of the last groups deeply moved the spectators. The sturdy lads, who had left so happily in the morning, returned broken with fatigue, devastated, drenched in sweat, haggard eyes, clenched hands, clenched jaws, stumbling at every step, threatening continually to fall on the pavement.

A small marine infantry soldier, seized by a dizzy spell, takes two steps back. An officer holds him and shakes him. Another one shouts at him: “Hold on, no more than 25 meters left!”. Hardly recovered, the poor child, he is not yet twenty, continues on his way staggering. A hundred meters from the checkpoint, he stops again and brings his clenched hands to his throat. But an officer motions him forward, giving him a word of encouragement. He stiffens then, and feeling his strength completely abandon him, he rushes in a last effort towards the finish post near which he comes crashing down.
And these sorrowful scenes went on and on …

Hm… I think that white fatigue trousers will forever remind me of the deplorable scenes above.

Camille du Gast, the Valkyrie of Motorsports

Youyou‘ by Carlos de Mesquita published by R. Villeneuve (Paris, 1907) and illustrated by P. Sch.

The illustration for the piano music Youyou  is not the most captivating one. But its dedication “Au commandant du ‘Camille’ Madame Camille Du Gast” caught my attention.
A youyou is a small boat or a dinghy used to tender passengers between a ship and the shore. Here is a photograph of Mme Camille du Gast climbing from a youyou onto her motorboat, the Camille.

Cover picture from ‘La Vie au grand air: revue illustrée de tous les sports’ published by Pierre Lafitte, Paris, May 1905.

The adventurous Mme du Gast took part in the 1905 Algiers to Toulon race organised by the Paris newspaper Le Matin. Sadly, it would be the last time she boarded the Camille

Mme du Gast, wearing a southwester hat on board of the Camille.

To ensure the safety of the seven competing motorboats, each one was accompanied by a torpedo boat destroyer. Moreover, two cruisers followed the race. Sixteen hours after leaving Algiers the Camille arrived in second place at Port Mahon, a harbour on the Spanish island Minorca.

An artist’s impression of the crew of the Camille being saved by the Kléber.

In the second part of the race the participants tried to reach Toulon, but this ended in disaster. All competitors and their crew had to be saved from the fury of a storm-swept Mediterranean. The Camille was engulfed by the violent sea. In a perilous operation led by the cruiser Kléber, the crew of the Camille was pulled aboard. But not before an exhausted Mme du Gast fell into the sea and  was heroically rescued by a sailor. The Camille was left to the mercy of the waves.

Mme du Gast on board of the Kléber, the day after the shipwreck of the Camille. She must have found dry and presentable clothing in the captain’s trunk…

Two months later, Mme du Gast was declared the winner of the Algiers to Toulon race having come closest to finishing before sinking.

The 1905 Algier-Toulon race was not Mme du Gast’s first valiant exploit: she loved fencing, tobogganing, skiing, rifle and pistol shooting, ballooning, parachuting and horse training. She rode her first automobile around 1900 and participated in glamorous capital-to-capital car races, such as Paris-Berlin in 1901, Paris-Vienne in 1902 and Paris-Madrid in 1903.

Mme du Gast driving her first car, a Panhard-Levassor. Bibliothèque Marguerite Durand/Roger-Viollet

Mme du Gast’s sobriquet, the Valkyrie of motorsports, elegantly expressed her buxom figure, as seen on these photographs.

Camille du Gast posing in her leather duster and matching chauffeuse’s driver hat.

It is said that she had a very upright position when driving her motorised vehicles because of her corset. Looking at the picture with her at the rudder of her ‘canot‘, I find her silhouette mesmerizingly disturbing. I then imagine that she just donned a corset for official pictures, and immediately tucked the hindering girdle into a corner when going for action.

Mme du Gast dans son canot automobile à Juvisy, 25 septembre 1904; Wikipedia

Disappointingly, it seems that du Gast’s perfect hourglass shape is but the result of photographic retouching. Look at the telltale pencil corrections around her waist, belly and hips on these magnifications.

The composer of Youyou was Carlos de Mesquita, a Brazilian-born concert pianist and composer. In 1877, aged 13, he left Brazil to study piano and organ at the Conservatoire de Paris where he took lessons with Jules Massenet and César Franck. In the 1880s and 1890s he would introduce their work in Brazil, together with those of Delibes, Bizet, Gustave Charpentier and Saint-Saëns. Through his Concertos Populares, de Mesquita not only introduced a new repertoire in Brazil. He also tried to musically educate and appeal to a growing middle class. His noble intention was undoubtedly inspired by his colleague Gustave Charpentier, who founded in 1902 the Conservatoire Populaire Mimi Pinson for the musical schooling of working girls.

We found another Carlos de Mesquita’s sheet music in our Images Musicales collection. It is also dedicated to Camille du Gast and portrays her profile in a tangled Art nouveau floral design. A sign of respect, or was there also un peu d’amour..?

‘Un Peu d’Amour’ by Carlos de Mesquita and Charles Fuster, published by Henry Lemoine & Cie (Paris, sd) and illustrated by ED.

To prove her more artistic accomplishments, Mme du Gast who was a talented singer and piano player, gave charity recitals accompanied by Carlos de Mesquita. The newspaper La Presse describes one of her performances: “When Madame du Gast appeared, a flattering murmur ran through the audience. One was curious to hear Mme Du Gast, who yesterday was an intrepid automobile driver, who will be an aeronaut tomorrow, and who was revealed to us this evening as an excellent musician. Accompanied by M. Carlos de Mesquita, she has performed two pieces of this delicate composer. We celebrated both of them.”

Camille du Gast – publicity picture for a piano recital, presumed c. 1890s (source: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, Bain Collection).

The mondaine Camille du Gast got entangled in a scandal following the trial against her brother and father whom she had accused of embezzlement. Maître Barboux acting for her relatives, hit below the belt when he showed the court a picture of a painting of a naked lady. Barboux claimed that the lady, only clad in a mask, was Mme du Gast (as he had been told by Mme du Gast’s father and brother). Oh my god!

‘La Femme au Masque’ by Henri Gervex, 1885.

Mme du Gast’s libel action against Maître Barboux caused a sensation in Paris. Both the artist Henri Gervex and the girl who had stood model for the painting, Marie Renard, corroborated du Gast’s case. Still they were not given a hearing. Maître Barboux refused to apologise and moreover won the case on a legal technicality.

Post Card, mocking Mme du Gast and her supposed modelling for ‘La femme au masque’.

It is said that Madame du Gast who was present in the courtroom, had hidden a horsewhip in her parasol with the intention of administering correction to Maître Barboux. However, he prudently chose to leave the Palais de Justice by a private way, as he knew that Madame du Gast and her friends were in a very excited state after the decision of the Court.

But that is not the end of the story, as the prince de Sagan, a friend and admirer of Mme du Gast, followed the lawyer to his house with the firm determination to avenge the honour of Mme du Gast. He slapped Maître Barboux in the face calling him an insulter of women. An hour later, following impeccable manners, the prince sent his card to Barboux’s house. The Australian West Gippsland Gazette (september 1902) further reports: “Maître Barboux, as already noted, is no longer a young man, although very active, and he has, in any case, passed the fighting age, so he prefers the legal way of obtaining satisfaction.“ Another lawsuit followed. Although the court accepted that the prince had acted in good fate, he was condemned to pay a 500 francs fine.

Each sheet music tells its own story. But we also found another truth: one Youyou may conceal another…

Dans la Nuit tous le Chats sont Gris‘ from the You-You opérette of Victor Alix, J. Ardot & J. Sirrah (Marcel Labé, Paris, 1922). Illustration by Choppy.

Cutie Kewpie

joujou
Ne brisez pas vos joujoux‘ by Laurent Hallet & Telly, published by Telly et Halet (Paris, 1921) and illustrated by Gaston Girbal.

‘Do not break your toys!’ cries the cute one-armed doll. A warning to children. Or is it a moral advice to adults, as in the 1944 Mills Brothers’ hit ‘You Always Hurt the One You Love’ ?
In fact I have been chasing this particular cover in our dolls collection of sheet music. I was intrigued, and wanted to know if the doll’s peculiar hairstyle would match that of Radja Nainggolan. He is a Belgian football international currently playing for AS Roma. Let me set his portrait side by side to a photograph of such a doll.

Nainggolan and Kewpie doll
Left: portrait of Radja Nainggolan. Right: a kewpie doll (© picture: The Mel Birnkrant Collection).

These dolls typically have big eyes, a tuft of blonde hair, a pot belly and splayed hands. They are called Kewpies and are inspired on the 1909 creations of writer and illustrator Rose O’Neill. She brought into being the little comic characters for her cartoons. The tiny creatures were always helping people out of trouble, battling injustice and making the readers laugh.

loves doll
Love’s Doll‘ by William Romsberg, published by Edouard Andrieu (Paris, 1922) and illustrated by Georges Desains.

The dolls were uber cute and resembled cupids, hence their phonetic name ‘Kewpie’. A few years later a German company manufactured them in porcelain, which made them very fragile as toys. Dressed in a wide satin ribbon with a large bow in the back, the dolls became very successful in America. Soon the popularity of the Kewpie Doll also spread over Europe.

my kewpie
My “Kewpie” Doll‘ by Nat Goldstein & M.J. Gunsky, published by Nat Goldstein (San Francisco, 1914) and illustrated by Morgan. (not in our collection)

From the mid 1920’s on they were mass produced in celluloid and chalk. The small playthings were often given as a cheap present at fairs. This use continued even until 1958, as can be seen in the ‘Kewpie Doll’ song by the American crooning baritone, Perry Como.

The dolls also featured in advertising and were in 1925 the inspiration for a –still existing– brand of Japanese mayonnaise.

jello kewpies EN MAYONAISE

Rose O’Neill made a fortune from these first mass-produced dolls. She nearly sacrificed all of it in order to help out her family and friends. She was also an activist for women’s suffrage.

oneill_votes copy

To end our little post, and since you have been humming that tune from the beginning, here they are: The Mills Brothers !