With the development of railways in the second half of the 19th century, the upper and middle classes started to enjoy the summer at the seaside. Women and children could stay for one or two months while the husbands joined them each weekend.
Every Saturday evening, after work, a train full of happy husbands departed direction coast and returned back on Monday morning. These express trains from Paris or Brussels to and fro the North Sea resorts were called trains des maris (husband trains). In Germany it was the Ehemännerzug which brought the husbands from Berlin to the Baltic Sea and back again.
On the naive Parisian trade card above two men buy their tickets, first class of course, for the train des maris.
According to the Figaro there also existed ‘trains des amants’ or lover trains – so very French! On Monday morning these trains brought the young men from the cities to the ‘lonely’ married wives at the resorts. They returned home on Saturday morning before the arrival of the husbands…
The Belgian artist Félicien Rops made an amusing etching of a train des maris: a wife and her lover are seen kissing, behind huge and symbolic horns while in the distance the horn-bearing train takes her husband on his way.
I don’t think it is a coincidence that Charles Biqual depicts the horned cows in the foreground of the sheet music cover, do you?
Anyway, some women seemed very cheerful when the train des maris had left, as illustrated by Herouard for La Vie Parisienne.
This cover by Roger de Valerio represents a caricature of the French singer, composer and lyricist Léonce Paco. He created some songs for the Montmartre cabaret ‘La Pie qui Chante’ but little else is known about his life. In the collection of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, we found a picture of him being assisted by Georges Cochon and his fédération des locataires. Apparently Léonce Paco was having trouble with his landlord.
Georges Cochon was an anarchist and maybe the first squatter ever. He was very popular in the years before the First World War when cheap, decent lodgings were hard to find. Georges Cochon founded a tenants union (Syndicat des Locataires) and was, like a kind of Robin Hood, always ready to assist people being evicted by their landlord. According to The New York Times he moved poor (large) families out of their lodgings on which the rent was overdue so quickly that the landlords couldn’t get papers executed to seize the furniture. He then moved them into any other place available. And if he couldn’t find lodgings, he created them in empty houses or buildings.
Furthermore, to draw attention to his cause, he was the author of hundreds of playful protests. For example, he and his union erected a shack in the Parisian Jardin des Tuileries. On a banner one could read ‘House with garden donated by the Union of Tenants to a homeless family of 10, chased by their landlord and abandoned by the Public Assistance.’ Thanks to his protests public opinion changed and housing and renting conditions became more human.
Georges Cochon was a welcome subject in the Parisian Cafés Chantants. In our collection Images Musicales we have two songs sympathising with Georges Cochon: ‘Donnez des Logements’ and ‘C’est Cochon !’. The cover of the first song shows his picture and cartoons of overprized poor lodgings. The cover of the second song illustrates his strategy to move the furniture of tenants with overdue rent on pushcarts, so that their furniture could not be confiscated. Both are illustrated by the same artist E. Muller. So far we have found no information about this illustrator.
We were intrigued by this cover because the drawing of the elegant young lady is at odds with the title ‘La lionne de Mabille‘. So we did a little research into the meaning of the french word lionne. During the first half of the 19th century, the word lionne, French for lioness, was used to designate a young, eccentric, cultivated but romantic Parisian woman of means with an independent spirit. A lionne was a trendsetter in fashion and in thoughts, without being a feminist. There existed lionnes littéraires and lionnes politiques. The term is extensively described in the 1845 booklet ‘Les Lionnes de Paris’ written by the Cuban born Maria de las Mercedes Santa Cruz y Montalvo, known after her marriage in 1811 to a French aristocrat as La Comtesse Merlin. La Comtesse Merlin can herself be considered a first rate lionne. She was keeping a literary salon in Paris where people gathered to refine their taste and increase their knowledge through conversation. Her beauty and her charm attracted le tout Paris. La Fayette, Chateaubriand, George Sand, Mérimée, Balzac and de Musset were amongst her guests.
According to others une lionne was used to describe a courtesan. In French you have a lot of terms for describing a kept woman: cocotte, grande horizontale, demi-mondaine, demi-castor, biche, lorette, gigolette, grisette, fille… like the large number of Eskimo words for snow.
In either case les lionnes frequented the Parisian ballrooms. And one of these was the Bal Mabille founded by a Parisian dance teacher, Monsieur Mabille. At the start in 1830 it was an ordinary guinguette near the Champs Elysées. The Champs Elysées was not the busy road it is now but was still very much the countryside. Monsieur Mabille’s sons introduced 3000 gaslights in 1843. Lacking age-old oak trees in the garden, they planted iron palm trees speckled with colourful lamps. They arranged fake flowerbeds and a grotto. A dozen giant poles were connected by fairy lights. Moorish pavilions were erected to house the orchestra and the grand café. This fairy-tale landscape could best be admired by night which led to the brothers’ brilliant idea: they opened the first bal champêtre by night. It proved a huge success and was copied everywhere. The Bal Mabille was a triumph of modernity and exoticism and was only affordable for the happy few, at least in the beginning. Later on it became more mainstream and in the 1860s lost its charm for the women of the upper and even middle classes. In 1870 Le Bal Mabille definitely closed its doors.
The polka La Lionne de Mabille was composed by Anton Wallerstein a German violinist, and prolific writer of popular dance music with international acclaim. The polka, became very popular as a new dance style and some claim that is was danced for the first time in France in Le Bal Mabille.
That this song was published in Belgium indicates that it was popular outside France. Ina Boudier-Bakker, a well known Dutch writer let her main character Annetje in De klop op de deur (The Knock on the Door) play La Lionne de Mabille on her piano.